It has been said that Trucks and cars have a common ancestor, the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. Firstly, it was used in year 1611 and referred as the small strong wheels on ships’ cannon carriages.
Since 1771 it came to its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, its expanded application to “motor-powered load carrier” has been in usage since 1930, shortened from “motor truck, which dates back to 1901. With developing technology, trucks also got modified in their shapes, sizes, features and technology. And nowadays, the market is full of various trucks each having particular use and specifications.
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Types of trucks according to their size :
Ultra Light Truck : These type of trucks typically used for off highways way use on estates, golf course, and parks, often produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets ,generally as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. Some manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicles.
Very Light Truck : These trucks usually come with aircraft like bodies mostly popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles. Generally they are used in old town or in cities having very narrow passageways. Regardless of name these light trucks serves a wide range of uses, in many countries used as on-road utility vehicles. These vehicles are used in construction, large campuses (government, university, and industrial), agriculture, cattle ranches, amusement parks, and replacements for golf carts.
Major mini truck manufacturers and their brands :
Trucks are placed into classifications based on the gross vehicle weight rating.
Light Truck : Light truck or light-duty truck is a US classification for trucks or truck-based vehicles with a payload capacity of less than 4,000 pounds. Similar sized goods vehicles in the European Union are known as light commercial vehicles. The size varies, country to country.
Medium Truck : Medium duty trucks refer to truck Classes 6-7, which have a gross vehicle weight rating range of 19,501- 33,000 lbs. Medium duty trucks are used for a variety of lighter duty applications. For example, pickup, delivery, small utility bodies, service bodies, small dumps and lighter garbage truck applications. Fleet managers have utilized the M2 106 for several different refuse functions, from trash haulers to recyclers to roll-offs. For larger refuse needs that go into Class 8 – the 114SD is the garbage truck of choice. Medium duty and traditional vocational trucks also have a lower fuel economy than heavy duty trucks, making them the ideal option for certain lighter applications. From garbage trucks to delivery trucks and more, a medium duty truck can be customized to meet your application needs. Medium duty trucks are ideal for almost any industry due to customizable features such as cab configurations, bodies and chassis-mounted equipment.
Heavy Truck : Heavy trucks are heavier than medium trucks. They weigh between 26001 to over 33000 lb (11794 to over (14969 kg). There is no higher on-road classification.Heavy trucks are the largest on-road trucks, Class 8. These include vocational applications such as heavy dump trucks, concrete pump trucks, and refuse hauling, as well as ubiquitous long-haul 4×2 and 6×4 tractor units.Road damage and wear increase very rapidly with the axle weight. The number of steering axles and the suspension type also influence the amount of the road wear. In many countries with good roads a six-axle truck may have a maximum weight of 44 t (97,000 lb) or more.
Many heavy trucks listed are also made in medium duty versions :
- Concrete Transport Truck (cement mixer)
- Mobile Crane Truck
- Dump Truck
- Garbage Truck
- Tank Truck
- Refrigerator Truck
Off Road Truck : Off-road trucks include standard, extra heavy-duty highway-legal trucks, typically outfitted with off-road features such as a front driving axle and special tires for applications such as logging and construction, and purpose-built off-road vehicles unconstrained by weight limits, such as the Liebherr T 282B mining truck. Mostly trucks share common construction they are made of chassis, a cab, an area for placing cargo or equipment, axles, suspension and road wheels, an engine and a drivetrain. Pneumatic, hydraulic, water, and electrical systems may also be present. Many also tow one or more trailers or semi-trailers.
The cab is an enclosed space where the driver is seated. A “sleeper” is a compartment attached to or integral with the cab where the driver can rest while not driving, sometimes seen in semi-trailer trucks.
Possible cab configuration: Cab over engine” (COE) or “flat nose: where the driver is seated above the front axle and the engine
Conventional cabs: The driver is seated behind the engine, as in most passenger cars or pickup trucks.
Cab beside engine: This type is often custom made from a regular cabover truck that gets the upper half of its cab removed on the passenger side and replaced by an extended section of the bed.
Trucks Body Type
They have insulated panels as walls and a roof and floor, used for transporting fresh and frozen cargo such as ice cream, food, vegetables, and prescription drugs. They are mostly equipped with double-wing rear doors, but a side door is sometimes fitted.
Box Body Truck :
A box truck also known as a cube truck, cube van, rolling toaster or box van is a chassis cab truck with an enclosed cuboid-shaped cargo area. On most box trucks, the cabin is separate to the cargo area, however some box trucks have a door between the cabin and the cargo area.
Concrete Mixers :
It have a rotating drum on an inclined axis, rotating in one direction to mix, and in the other to discharge the concrete down chutes. Because of the weight and power requirements of the drum body and rough construction sites, mixers have to be very heavy duty.
Dump Truck :
These are used to transport loose material such as sand, gravel, or dirt for construction. A typical dump truck has an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and lifts at the front, allowing the material in the bed to be unloaded (“dumped”) on the ground behind the truck.
Flatbed Truck :
It have an entirely flat, level platform body. This allows for quick and easy loading but has no protection for the load. Hanging or removable sides are sometimes fitted.
Semi Tractors :
It have a fifth wheel for towing a semi-trailer instead of a body.
Tank Truck :
They are designed to carry liquids or gases. They usually have a cylindrical tank lying horizontally on the chassis. Many variants exist due to the wide variety of liquids and gases that can be transported.
They are used to recover and/or tow disabled vehicles. They are normally equipped with a boom with a cable; wheel/chassis lifts are becoming common on newer trucks.